The DMCA circumvention rules represent the U.S. implementation of a broader provision of the WIPO Copyright Treaty that requires “adequate protection” and “effective remedies” to circumvent the technical protections used by rights holders to protect their works. The DMCA`s anti-circumvention provisions have been the subject of considerable controversy during the legislative debate on the implementation of the WIPO Treaty and, in their adopted form, give the impression of lobbying and political compromise. Instead of specifying certain general principles, the rules are very complicated and at the same time ambiguous on important points (as discussed in detail in Annex G). In addition, they take a copyright-centric view of what is really a broader public policy issue: When should the circumvention of GST used by anyone for any purpose be allowed? However, a trade secret holder may not prevent other persons from using the same technical or commercial information if he himself acquired or developed that information through his own research and development, reverse engineering or marketing analysis activities, etc. Since trade secrets, unlike patents, are not made public, they do not offer “defensive” protection as prior art. For example, if a particular process for producing compound X has been protected by a trade secret, another person may obtain a patent or utility model for the same invention if the inventor obtained that invention independently. Patents can be expensive to obtain and maintain, as there are annual or recurring fees to obtain them. And like trademarks, patents are only valid in the country where the patent was granted. Therefore, in-house lawyers need to determine which countries and markets need patent protection.
Here (and in more detail in Appendix E), the Lay Committee describes the most important technical protection mechanisms, suggests how they can be integrated into an overall protection system, describes the limitations of each, and describes current research directions. There are several classes of mechanisms: Any encryption system must be designed and built with great care, as there are many and sometimes very subtle ways to capture information. Among the most obvious is the breaking of the code: if 3 “consumer” is taken here in a purely economic sense, legal and ethical issues are set aside for the moment. A bigger problem arises when information is made available to an unlimited community, as is commonly the case on the Web. In general, it cannot be assumed that the user complies with the rules of use (e.g. copyright restrictions on reproduction); Therefore, technical mechanisms are likely to be needed to enforce these rules. for administrators and end users in a way that allows access to be negotiated. This raises interesting questions about user authentication: for example, is the requester who they say they are? Does he have a valid library card? It also raises questions about database maintenance: for example, collections change, rights holders change, and the user community changes when library cards expire. Many other issues also need to be clarified in order for systems to operate at the expected scale. Some work has been done in this direction (e.g. Alrashid et al., 1998), but considerable development work is still needed.
Digital information products result in high first copy costs and almost negligible production and distribution costs. Especially without intellectual property protection, this can lead to a very sharp drop in the value of the product over time, as it becomes an easily copyable product. There are some generalizations about the choice of business models to deal with IP issues. In general, business models where IP can be widely disseminated at low cost are more successful in solving IP problems than firms that rely on higher prices and a small number of distributed units. The reasons are simple: if the cost of reproduction or piracy is high compared to the cost of legally acquiring the work, intellectual property problems will be less serious. Newspapers, magazines and paperbacks are examples. Perhaps the most basic form of IP protection technology is access control (i.e. determining whether the applicant is authorized to access the information). A basic form of such control has been part of the world of operating system software almost since the first implementation of operating systems, providing limited but useful security. In its simplest form, an access control system tracks the identity of each member of the user community, the identities of data objects, and the permissions (read, modify, execute, etc.) that each user has for each object. The system consults this information when it receives a service request and grants or denies the request based on what the authorization indicates. Tagging and monitoring technologies do not attempt to directly control user behavior.
In particular, they do not attempt to prevent unauthorized copying and modification. Rather, they aim to make these acts traceable so that rights holders can seek redress if infringements are detected. Often, their intention is simply to emphasize that copying is prohibited; The usefulness of these technologies comes from the fact that many people are honest most of the time. The published literature (see, for example, Stefik, 1997a,b) is fairly clear about what trustworthy systems are supposed to do, but it does not describe in technical detail how they should achieve it. Stefik, for example, understands the need for some sort of hardware component (Stefik, 1997b) to complement today`s Internet and PC worlds,19 but says little about how this component would work or how it would be added to today`s infrastructure. Here, we explore two general ways to implement trust systems, and then look at the obstacles they face. Companies may own copyright because the law allows ownership of “works for rent” – works created by an employee in the course of employment or certain independent contractors owned by the employer. Copyright grants copyright holders (among others) the following exclusive rights: Since cryptography is the basis of many other tools discussed, the following section begins with a brief explanation of this technology.5 Next, the techniques that help in the management of intellectual property in general, • The amount of inconvenience caused by a TPS, has always been correlated with its degree of protection. As a result, in a commercial context, too strict protection is just as bad as inadequate protection: whether in extreme protection or in full protection (i.e. making content inaccessible), revenue is zero.